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A retrospective study of the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and phage types of 111 Salmonella typhi strains isolated in 1996 from Vietnam was carried out. The strains were tested for susceptibility to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Simultaneous resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were present in 84 strains (75.7%). Nalidixic acid resistance was only observed in 2 multidrug-resistant strains (1.8%). Twenty-one strains (18.9%) were completely susceptible to all drugs tested. All 111 strains were susceptible to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cipropfloxacin. The MIC values for chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole corresponded with the results by disk diffusion method. On Vi phage-typing, 5 different phage types (28, A, D1, E1 and M1) were found in 12 strains (10.8%). However, most S. typhi strains were indistinguishable by this typing technique because they were degraded Vi-positive or untypeable Vi-positive strains (35.1% and 54.1%, respectively). There were no correlations between antimicrobial resistance patterns and phage types in the tested S. typhi strains in this study.
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The broad antimicrobial spectrum and affordable price of chloramphenicol make it an attractive first line treatment option for children with severe illnesses in developing countries. Little is known, however, about its pharmacokinetics in young infants in these settings.
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How tumor cells develop resistance to apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents is incompletely understood. In the present report, we investigated apoptosis induction by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in two human T cell lines, Jurkat and HuT-78. While TNF inhibited the growth of Jurkat cells and activated caspase-3, it had no effect on HuT-78 cells. It was further found that HuT-78 cells constitutively expressed the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB. TNF activated NF-kappaB in Jurkat cells but not in HuT-78 cells. HuT-78 cells were also resistant to NF-kappaB activation induced by phorbol ester, H2O2, ceramide, endotoxin, and interleukin-1. Despite the presence of preactivated NF-kappaB, HuT-78 cells also expressed high levels of IkappaB-alpha, the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB and, unlike Jurkat cells, were resistant to TNF-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha. Its half-life in HuT-78 cells was 12 h as opposed to 45 min in Jurkat cells. Antibodies against TNF blocked the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and proliferation of HuT-78 cells but had no significant effect on Jurkat cells, suggesting an autocrine role for TNF. The antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate also suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activation and it reversed the cell's sensitivity to TNF-induced cytotoxicity and activation of caspase-3. Overall, these results suggest that constitutive activation of NF-kappaB, TNF, and prooxidant pathway in certain T cell lymphomas causes resistance to apoptosis, and this can be reversed by antioxidants.
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Species of tegu (Tupinambis) are the largest lizards in South America. Large numbers of these lizards are hunted; there is a vigorous trade in their skins and the meat is consumed by rural and native peoples. The animals are also bred in captivity, an economic activity for rural populations which can help in the animals' conservation. Faecal samples from 30 captive-born tegus were analysed for the presence of Salmonella in two separate samplings. In the first analysis, samples from 26 animals (87%) yielded Salmonella enterica of which 23% were of Rubislaw serotype; 20% Carrau and Agona serotypes; 7% Infantis and Saint-Paul serotypes; 3% Panama and Brandenburg serotypes; 10% were S. enterica subsp. enterica and 7% were rough form. In the second analysis, four tegus (13%) which had been negative in the first sampling were positive, thus, 100% of the animals studied carried the bacterium. Antibiotic susceptibility showed resistance to sulfonamide in 82% of the isolates, streptomycin in 64%, tetracycline in 6% and Chloramphenicol in 20%. Two animals carried strains of the same serotype with different patterns of antibiotic susceptibility. Although it is well known that reptiles are a significant source of Salmonella, to our knowledge, its prevalence in tegu has not been studied previously.
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Of 73 Hib isolates, orf 51 PCR amplicons, predicting the presence of ICEs, were found in all 33 MDR isolates while only in 1 of 33 sensitive strains. The remaining 7 ampicillin susceptible, chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistant strains did not produce a PCR product to orf 51. PCR amplification from CSF specimens of these culture positive cases produced identical results with 100% and 97% positive and negative predictive values, respectively. Multiplex PCR to detect Bex and orf 51 identified another 16 MDR Hib cases among 81 culture-negative CSF samples.
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The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of resistance in 114 clinical strains of enterococci. Identification was made using PASCO dehydrated panels and by the conventional method of Facklam and found the following: 92.1% E. faecalis, 7% E. faecium and 0.9% E. avium. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the PASCO system, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin and streptomycin were determined by the agar dilution method. All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. We detected resistance to ampicillin in 4.4% of isolates, to penicillin in 6%, to tetracycline in 41.2%, to rifampicin in 12.3%, to chloramphenicol in 23.7%, to erythromycin in 66.7%, to ciprofloxacin in 53.5%, to gentamicin to a high level in 43.9%, and to streptomycin to a high level in 57%. E. faecium was associated with high-level resistance to gentamicin. E. faecium was more resistant than E. faecalis to quinolones, rifampicin, penicillin and ampicillin, and showed similar susceptibility to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. However, E. faecalis was more resistant than E. faecium to aminoglycosides, mainly to gentamicin.