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This cross sectional study (January to December 2010) was conducted in clinical microbiology laboratory of Aga Khan University Hospital. A total of 97 clinical respiratory specimens growing Moraxella catarrhalis were included. Frequency of β-lactamase production and antimicrobial resistance rates against ampicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were noted by performing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MICs were calculated as MIC50 and MIC90.
To describe the distribution of organisms and of antibiotic susceptibility among isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary academic hospital during a 1-year period, stratifying by place of infection acquisition.
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We encountered a patient with human immunodeficiency virus presented with 6 months of diarrhoea. The initial investigation was unrevealing. The diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was finally made on the histological sample obtained by colonoscopy. Moreover, the initial therapy with ciprofloxacin was not effective, while trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resulted in final cure of the disease.
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Observational Case Series.
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Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae, particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are often responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment in nosocomial infections. Employing molecular methods to distinguish between ESBL and non-ESBL producing isolates can help quick identification of these multidrug resistant pathogens and thereby initiating appropriate antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to employ RAPD-PCR to distinguish the genetic fingerprints of ESBL producing clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from ESBL negative strains.
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In our centre, the high prevalence of colonisation is not due to cross-contamination. Our main concern is the high rate of antimicrobial resistance.
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Long-term care (LTC) acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are increasingly resistant to antibiotics, and the selection of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy can be challenging for clinicians. The purpose of this study is to describe LTC-acquired UTI empiric antibiotic prescription patterns and UTI resistance patterns among older adults admitted to an acute psychiatric facility. This retrospective study found that ciprofloxacin was the agent most often used for empiric therapy (76% of cases). However, LTC-acquired UTIs in the sample were susceptible to ciprofloxacin in only 31% of cases. The study has implications for antibiotic stewardship with recommendations for empiric antibiotic selection for LTC-acquired UTIs given the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial strains in the LTC setting.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) resistance to antimicrobial has been a major concern in China, and epidemiological data on N. gonorrhoeae resistance are not well understood. This meta-analysis was aimed at summarizing the evidence on N. gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin in China.
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Twenty-two-year-old previously healthy male is referred to the ENT clinic with a neck tumour. The patient was an animal caretaker. Ultrasonic examination showed a lymph gland conglomerate on the left side of the neck. Primary serologic examination was negative and the lymph tumour was removed. The biopsy showed necrotic lymphadenitis. Three weeks after the first consultation the patient tests positive for F. tularensis. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin 750 mg x 2 by the oral route for two weeks. Seven weeks after the onset of treatment, the titer for F. tularensis lowers.
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Moxifloxacin has potent bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae; a major causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections. This study aims to use the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices to predict the therapeutic outcome under different scenarios of moxifloxacin exposure and pneumococcal resistance. STELLA(®) software was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin in patients with severe pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). The current dose of moxifloxacin was found to be insufficient for eradication of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in ventilated patients with severe bronchopneumonia. This can be attributed to the lower tissue penetration observed in this population. Increasing the dose to 600 mg was able to achieve higher levels of free drug AUC/MIC in both bronchial and plasma compartments. In AECB, moxifloxacin achieved the same AUC/MIC values observed in pneumonia at the different MIC values. This may allow the extrapolation of findings of moxifloxacin studies in pneumonia to the management of patients with AECB.
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Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 "D isoform" demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and ciprofloxacin increased 32 and 8 fold, respectively; under similar conditions. Taken together, these results support designing of peptide-based therapeutics for combating MRSP infections, particularly for topical application.