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All strains survived within a pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged 0.064-0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused separation of the membrane and lysis of H. pylori within 10 minutes. Urushiol (0.128 mg/mL × 7 days) did not cause complications on mice. The eradication rates were 33% in the urushiol monotherapy, 75% in the triple therapy (omeprazole + clarithromycin + metronidazole), and 100% in the urushiol + triple therapy, respectively. H. pylori-induced gastritis was not changed by urushiol but reduced by eradication. Only the expression of interleukin-1β in the gastric tissue was significantly increased by H. pylori infection and reduced by the urushiol and H. pylori eradication (p = .014).
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Cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium chelonae is an uncommon disease, although this atypical mycobacterium is an acid-fast bacillus ubiquitous in the environment. It is often misdiagnosed and treated as a fungal or common bacterial infection. We report a case of disseminated atypical mycobacterial skin infection of a 72-year-old woman who was treated with different topical and systemic antimycotic and antibiotic drugs over a period of 5 months without remarkable improvement. Eventually, repeated tissue cultures on special medium and performance of PCR led to the diagnosis of M. chelonae infection. The patient was treated successfully with oral clarithromycin within 8 weeks. In case of abscessing cutaneous infection, M. chelonae should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged disease when common antibiotics are not effective after 2-4 weeks of treatment.
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Eradication of Helicobacter pylori usually consists of a 7-day course of triple therapy including metronidazole or amoxicillin plus clarithromycin plus a proton pump inhibitor. We report about a rare adverse event of Hp eradication in a patient with moderate chronic and moderate active pangastritis. Shortly after the end of treatment cholestatic hepatitis occurred which was most likely related to clarithromycin, perhaps enhanced by amoxicillin. Since liver dysfunction was self-limited, no further treatment was required. In summary, clinicians should be aware about the presented rare adverse event of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for a close monitoring of those patients and rapid management of acute liver failure.
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Geographic distribution of sensitivity rates was not homogeneous for some antibiotics. Around 24% of strains were betalactamase producers, requiring higher MICs of antibiotics such as loracarbef, cefprozil and cefaclor than non betalactamase producers. Nevertheless MICs of ceftibuten, cefpodoxime and cefixime were similar in both betalactamase producers and non-producers. Five strains (1.25%) were beta -lactamase (2), but resistant to ampicillin (MIC > or = 8 mg/L) and to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC > or = 4/2 mg/L). Only three strains showed intermediate sensitivity to chloramphenicol. These strains and four others were inhibited with > or = 4 mg/L of tetracycline. Only one strain was resistant to tetracycline (MIC: 64 mg/L) and to rifampin (MIC: 256 mg/L). All strains were sensitive to azithromycin (MICs < or = 4 mg/L) and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and trovafloxacin (MICs < or = 0.5 mg/L). However, ten strains (2.5%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC > or = 4 mg/L).
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From January to December 2012, a total of 599 strains causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infection were collected from 11 hospitals, including 381 Streptococcus pneumonia, 137 Haemophilus influenza, and 81 Moraxella catarrhalis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method.
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There was some evidence for a short term association for first MI but none for a long term association for any outcome.
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Flourescently labeled oligonucleotdie probes that target ribosomal RNA were utilized in the FISH procedure. Ninety-one gastric biopsy specimens were tested by FISH and by histology using hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Geimsa stains. Furthermore, clarithromycin resistance in 39 of the 91 specimens was examined by FISH.
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Reported observed intention-to-treat eradication rates for ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin for 14 days range from 70-86% in studies from the USA and 82-96% in multinational studies carried out primarily in Europe. Two double-blind head-to-head comparisons with omeprazole plus clarithromycin or amoxycillin have shown that ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin gives considerably higher eradication rates than the omeprazole based regimens. Ongoing studies will define the efficacy of shorter duration dual therapies and provide further data on two antibiotics with ranitidine bismuth citrate. The possibility that ranitidine bismuth citrate may help in the eradication of resistant organisms and even in the prevention of primary resistance requires further work to expand the preliminary in vitro observations. In the meantime, it can be concluded that ranitidine bismuth citrate, when used in conjunction with clarithromycin for 14 days, is an effective therapy for the eradication of H. pylori.
We initiated a prospective trial of an azithromycin-containing regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease; the initial 4 months of therapy were with azithromycin (600 mg/d) alone. The primary study endpoint was microbiological response measured at 4 and 6 months of therapy. Of 29 patients enrolled in the study, 23 completed therapy. Fifty-two percent of these 23 patients were male, and 65% were smokers. All 23 patients were older than 45 years of age; 83% had bilateral disease, and 48% had fibrocavitary disease. Macrolide (clarithromycin)-susceptible MAC isolates were recovered from these 23 patients before treatment. Cultures of sputum from 38% of these patients became negative, and the positivity of cultures of sputum from 76% of these patients was significantly reduced. Sixty-eight percent of sputum cultures were strongly positive (> 200 colonies) before therapy, while only 27% were strongly positive after therapy. Although most patients continued to receive 600 mg of azithromycin/d, the high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects (76%) and altered hearing (41%) suggests the need for lower or less frequent dosing. Macrolide (clarithromycin) resistance did not develop in any MAC isolates during monotherapy. These results, which demonstrate that azithromycin is active against MAC pulmonary disease, provide a rationale to include this drug in the initial multidrug regimens recommended for the treatment of this disease.
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Clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a pump proton inhibitor are the most common drugs recommended as first-line triple therapy for H.pylori treatment, which results in eradication rates close to 80%, varying regionally, principally due to emergency cases and increases of clarithromycin resistant strains. Nucleotide substitutions at the H. pylori domain V of the 23S rRNA fraction are involved in the macrolide resistance and the A2142G and A2143G mutations are predominant in clinical isolates worldwide including in Brazil. As H. pylori culture is fastidious, we investigated the primary occurrence of H. pylori A2142G and A2143G rDNA 23S mutations using a molecular approach directly on gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients consecutively attended at Hospital das Clinicas of Marilia, São Paulo, Brazil.